10 a.m.-12:00 p.m., May 30, 2015
Instructor: Alice Fairhurst Facilitator: Steve Kwok
Alice informed that the 6 page handout Steve put together from Alice’s presentation contains the key information.
Alice indicated that the full PowerPoint presentation should not be distributed due to copyright concerns. Websites will be included in this document if one wishes to look at the data online.
OVERVIEW (See handout with link to his page, pg.1)
The research of Dr. Yan Shi (Polyhedron), Fudan University provided phylogenetic trees and maps showing where male and female lines appear in China. ALL maps, etc., are HIS work. (Do not copy. Ryan Wei is his English-speaking associate and Alice’s contact. DO NOT contact Ryan directly – go through Steve Kwok and cc Alice ONLY.
Personal DNA: 3 types
Y-DNA – only in males and passed through paternal lines (sperm)
Autosomal DNA – all have this
- Codis markers – used by law enforcement, paternity. Takes little bits in order to i.d. suspect. DO NOT test with companies who do this.
- Genealogy DNA – used to match relatives (use these)
MAJOR DIVISIONS OF CHINA (See handout – most are from South China, pg.1)
Dr. Yan has done extensive research on Chinese Han which comprises 92% of the Chinese population
FIRST GENEALOGICALLY SIGNIFICANT DNA: mtDNA (handout, pg.2)
Provides straight female line back in time.
Only female passes forward to children of next generation – as mtDNA = egg
mtDNA Haplogroups i.d. migration routes from eastern Africa.
Predominant mtDNA Haplogroups of China are: M7, M8, D4, N9, A, R9 and B4
mtDNA = many copies in the egg, around the nucleus
(Alice showed map from FamilyTreeDNA.com. If you test through them, you will receive your migration map.)
(Chart on pg. 2 of handout)
- mtDNA migrations from Africa to China:
- M7 & M8 are from Africa = 20% of Chinese (South and Central China)
- D separated from M and moved to East Asia. D4 is 15% of Chinese mtDNA
- M & N – big groups that left Africa. N, subgroup A went to Siberia, then U.S. & So. America. (Heat map – darkest in Central Asia – most likely beginning area.
- R = 17% Chinese from Southwest.
Mapping of mtDNA Haplogroups in China:
- M7=8% : http://blog.sina.com.cn/s/blog_465ddf790102v2w2.html
- M8=11%: higher concentration in Central China
- D4 = 15% (N. China), 20% (NE China)
- N9a=5% NW China
- A=8% North West China
- R9= 17% SW China
- B4=13% So. China
Y-DNA (See pg. 3 of handout)
- Straight male line; only found in males. Only males can test Y-DNA.
- Y-DNA from sperm
- Y-DNA Haplogroups identify migration paths from eastern Africa.
- 79% of Chinese Han males are in Haplogroup O
- 9% in C
- 6% in N
- 3% in Q
- 2% in D
- 1% in R
(Note: letter designations between mtDNA and Y-DNA do NOT correlate.)
Y-DNA migration from Africa to China
ONLY Qs sand Cs of Y-DNA to North & South America.
Very different migration patterns between males & females.
- A & B stayed in Africa.
- D and C went along East Asian coast to as far as Japan (2% of Chinese males)
- C appeared in southern Asia 50,000 years ago and Australia and Americas 10,000 years ago (9% of Chinese males)
- N arose in Siberia 10,000 years ago and is 6% of Chinese males
- O to Central or E. Asia – 35,000 years ago.
- 50% to Mongolia
- 13% to China
- 79% total broken into subgroups under O
- O3 (more than half of Chinese men) associated with beginning of rice farming (slavery came about because farmers needed laborers, this was a very recent revelation);
- R1a with taming the horse;
- J = wheat farming;
- R1b (Europe – covered with ice) – later developed metals to conquer all others.
The chart: Y-DNA HAPLOGROUPS DISTRIBUTION IN HAN CHINESE MALES (See pg. 4 of handout – this is a color chart)
These percentages do not add up. Alice contacted Ryan Wei who told her that they aren’t doing any more corrections, so deal with it! (Note: Alice has known Ryan for some time, having met him at some meeting or conference.)
Y-DNA (examples) Haplogroup O3a1c (IMS-JST002611) accounts for 16% of Chinese Y-DNA with 17% in Central China. http://www.ranhaer.com/thread-16435-1-1.html
mtDNA in siblings are the same if they have the same mother; only male gets Y-DNA
O3a2c1a (M117) – accounts for 15% of Chinese Y-DNA, with 20% in So. China.
O1 (M119) – is 13% of Chinese Y-DNA, with 20% in E. China, but lots in the South.
RECOMMENDATION: (See pg. 5 of handout)
Use FamilyTreeDNA as it offers testing of all three types of DNA. The other two, 23 and Me and Ancestry only do Autosomal DNA. Ask to join the SCGS project. Or order online at: www.familytreedna.com/group-join.aspx?Group=SCGS
Certain countries have their own regulations about DNA. France has restrictions. China does not allow sharing – either sending ours to them or sending theirs to us.
Testing: mtDNA for females or males. Remember, only the females pass mtDNA on to next generation so won’t apply to her father’s, husband’s or brother’s families.
You will get matches with their email addresses for contact.
You will get the haplogroup information and a map of your family’s migration.
If you test through SCGS, you can get their costs. If you go through SCGS, the results will be shared with them (Alice, Bonnie and Kathy) and will be kept confidential. They collect this information for their project only and only seek the data, not the personal information.
Alice recommends first getting “mtDNA plus” = $69 (2/3).
If you get a match, can add “mtDNA Full Sequence” test = $199 (50% of common ancestors in the last 125 years).
Testing Y-DNA is for males only as males pass only to males.
You will get matches & email addresses.
You will get haplogroup and your migration route.
Cost through SCGS – YDNA 37 (# of markers) = $149 or
YDNA 67 = $248
37 markers should be the minimum number requested. After the 37 markers test, you can always upgrade and ask for more markers.
The number of markers range from 25 – 111. The more markers enables finding relatives. http://www.ranhaer.com/thread-16435-1-1.htm
Compare your results with charts found at: http://blog.sina.com.cn/s/blog_465ddf790102v2w2.html
***Samples of all DNA are saved for 25 years. You can upgrade at any time later. They screen out medical information from the Autosomal DNA test.
Testing Autosomal DNA is from all ancestors. This dilutes as you go farther back in generations. The most successful is no more than five generations (third cousins)
Cost through SCGS – Family Finder = $99
You will get matches and email addresses.
You will get bio-geographical information.
ALL FAMILY TREE TESTS USE CHEEK SWABS.
Explore the results in the China Project at FTDNA. www.familytreedna.com/groups/china/dna-results
Click on DNA results, then look at the Y-DNA colorized chart.
Click on DNA results, then Look at the mtDNA results chart.
Testers can be in both the SCGS project and the China Project.
Bio-geographical Chart (Alice used information of a man of mixed background, residing in Hong Kong.) This gives a map of locations inhabited by your ancestors. This man did not look Chinese and was born in Scandinavia; however, his chart showed indicated a number of European locations and a fair amount of Chinese.
Note: If you are of mixed background, use “Family Finder” test (Autosomal).
Prior to 2000, there were no DNA tests for individuals to purchase. The Europeans were the first to enable this.
You can transfer a prior Ancestry test to Family Tree. You want to retain your Kit #’s.
ISSUES FOR CHINESE DOING DNA TESTING:
Since few Chinese Americans have tested, may be very few matches. The Chinese Americans are “back in the 2000s” as we have been slow to test.
Testers get Haplogroup if testing mtDNA or Y-DNA and can compare with Dr. Yan’s charts.
Autosomal DNA has no Haplogroups but does give bio-geographical information so can be informative for someone of mixed ancestry. “Family Finder” can have matches but can’t go back far enough to connect why they match.
RECOMMENDATION #1 (See Handout, pg. 6)
DNA SPS – (Advanced DNA) = further subgroups of DNA. Helps with locations. Only with males.
If ordering more than one test for an individual, be sure it’s ordered under the same kit number. One cheek swab can be used for multiple tests (upgrades).
Bring Kit # and password to an SCGS DNA Interest Group Meeting to get it interpreted.
Meetings: 10-12: 8/6/2015 or 10/19/2015.
Join your Kit to China Project on Family Tree. The SCGS DNA Interest Group people can help you with this step.
RESOURCES: Books that are all in the SCGS Library. They’re all at the DNA Meetings.
Recommended Books for Beginners:
- NextGen Genealogy: The DNA Connection, by David R. Dowell
- Genetic Genealogy: The Basics and Beyond, by Emily D. Aulicino
- Forensic Genealogy – Revised, by Colleen Fitzpatrick & Andrew Yeiser
- Trace Your Roots with DNA, by Megan Smolenyak Smolenyak and Ann Turner
- Deep Ancestry: Inside the Genographic Project, by Spencer Wells
Recommended Websites for Beginners:
- Beginners Guide to Genetic Genealogy by Kelly Wheaton
- The Genetic Genealogist by Blaine Bettinger, http://www.thegeneticgenealogist.com
- ISOGG Wiki - http://www.isogg.org/wiki/Wiki_Welcome_Page
- ISOGG Y-Tree – http://www.isogg.org/tree
- Kitty Cooperʼs Blog http://blog.kittycooper.com
- Your Genetic Genealogist by CeCe Moore http://www.yourgeneticgenealogist.com
- DNA Testing Adviser by Richard Hill http://www.dna-testing-adviser.com
Alice went into the China Project to show us the charts that have been developed from the various test results. I think Kalani manages this site. Alice manages her family sites by surname which she also showed us.
DNA IS FLUID. IT’S ALL STILL CHANGING AS THEY LEARN MORE.
Alice willing to come back to help interpret DNA tests from members of our group. She particularly like Wayne and Trae’s effort in this area.
issog.org/wiki compares DNA companies